39 The Teacher 1-2 (187) 2022 CLIL ❯❯❯ The notion of content Historically, the word content used to refer to the methods of grammar-translation, audiolingual method, vocabulary or sound patterns in a dialogue form. Recently, however, it has been viewed as the use of subject matter as a vehicle for the second or foreign language teaching/learning in what is called linguistic or language immersion. Some authors insist content needs to be an academic matter of a given non-linguistic subject, while others suggest it can be any non-linguistic theme, topic or issue that the learners find interesting or important. In content-based language teaching/learning, the content can be viewed as the material that is cognitively engaging and demanding and goes beyond the target language or target culture. Whatever the exact definition, the major drive in the CBI is the notion that the language is taught – and learnt – within the context of the content. When students are engaged with more content and thus use the language as a tool to learn something new – they engage better and thus feed their intrinsic motivation. Other driving forces of the CBI are the use of more advanced thinking skills and lowered focus on the structure of the language. As such, this approach proves to be highly student-centred as it strongly depends on the students’ ability to use the language. CBI practices No matter which definition of the content we accept, the process of its integration with what is going on in a language classroom needs special attention. In the end, our goal is to make sure the students will use the language effectively to express the studied non-linguistic content. One set of the CBI practices to enable a natural content integration is offered by Stoller (2002). These are as follows: ❶ Extended input, meaningful output, and feedback on language and grasp of content. ❷ Information gathering, processing, and reporting. ❸ Integrated skills (using reading, writing, speaking and listening innatural classroom activities). ❹ Task-based activities and project work, enhanced by cooperative learning principles. ❺ Strategy training to produce more metacognitively aware strategic learners. ❻ Visual support, i.e. images, graphic organisers, language ladders etc. ❼ Contextualised grammar instruction. ❽ Culminating synthesis activities (knowledge is displayed in writing and orally).