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40 The Teacher  1-2 (187) 2022 CLIL ❯❯❯ Soft CLIL parameters Ball, Clegg and Kelly (2015) take a bit of a different stance. Derived from the so-called ‘hard’ CLIL, that is the approach where content drives the entire learning process, their 10 CLIL parameters partly, but not completely overlap with the eight practises mentioned above. According to these authors, they can – and should, be used also in a language classroom when the teacher and the students engagewith non-linguistic content. The 10 CLIL parameters are as follows: ❶ Conceptual sequencing It means concepts need to be carefully positioned within the sequence specific for a given non-linguistic theme. For example, the concept of fractions needs to be taught before we explore the different ways those fractions are represented – ½ vs 0.5, that is vulgar vs decimal fractions. ❷ Conceptual fronting It is the concept taught that drives the learning process and thus dictates the language. For example, in the course of History, the indispensable grammar structure is the Simple Past Tense, and it needs to be used whether the students have mastered it before the contentdriven lesson or not. It not only refers to the grammar structures but vocabulary and language functions as well. ❸ Task as priority, language as vehicle The specific task the teacher selects for the students is going to dictate the language. For instance, when studying the life cycle of a frog, the students need to use the language expressing the sequence of events (e.g. first, next, later, finally). ❹ Guided multimedia input Whatever we teach needs to be in amulti-modal form, including static visuals, animations and videos. All this needs to be guided, that is supported, for instance by pre-, while- and post- activities. What is important, is that this support should not only refer to the language and content but also the procedure we want to use in our teaching. ❺ CLIL in Three Dimensions Besides the language and the content, every lesson uses specific procedures. As such, they also need explicit teaching and learning. For example, if the students have never seen a Venn diagram or have never transferred data from a table into a bar graph, these specific procedures need extra time to be learnt. ❻ Making key language salient The language in CLIL includes the subjectspecific vocabulary items, necessary grammar structures as well as language functions to be mastered (e.g. defining, hypothesising, comparing and contrasting or sequencing). As the students need to be able to use the language to discuss the subject-specific concepts, the indispensable language needs to be extra visible. ❼ The text-task relationship The element that lies between the reading or listening text – and ties them

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