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41 The Teacher  1-2 (187) 2022 CLIL              ❯❯❯ – are instructions. They also need to be something that the CLIL teachers plan carefully, as messy or unclear instructions may prevent the students from doing the task successfully. ❽ Enhancing peer communication Student-student interaction is a key to their understanding of the concepts taught. By talking about these concepts, students revise, re-tell, re-think and discuss the content topics. In doing so, we should encourage them to use the target language, but referring to L1 is not a drawback. On the contrary, it enables the students to make certain they understand the key concepts and then be more confident when reporting back in the target language. So, a CLIL teacher needs to make sure their students have a lot of opportunities to engage in conversations about the content. ❾ Supporting student output Output is everything that students produce, in any form, be it written, oral or visual. As such, it also needs support from the teacher. For example, we can provide a writing frame for a science experiment report or a substitution table that offers vocabulary and grammar structures needed for oral or written feedback to the task. ❿ Cognition It goes without saying that no students, including CLIL students, should sit in the classroom idly. They need to be engaged physically and/or mentally. Thus, CLIL teachers should employ cognitive techniques, such as questioning strategies or thinking routines. CBI benefits Content-based instruction offers multiple benefits to language teaching and learning. As it is based on non-linguistic subject content, it uses authentic language and texts. What is more, it can – and should be guided by learner interests and needs, included in the subject curriculum. The very target language thus becomes highly contextualised as it is embedded within the discourse relevant to a specific non-linguistic subject. This offers the learners a chance to make stronger cognitive and linguistic connections between what they already know and the new theme. Flexibility of CBI As CBI is meant to be used within the language classroom, teachers may be flexible in relation to the selected subject-specific theme and adapt the curriculum to the students’ interests. One approach worth exploring within the CBI is cross-curricular projects. They may be built around single themes, such as WATER (below) or TIME (phenomenon-based learning).

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