The Teacher 187

45 The Teacher  1-2 (187) 2022 Grammar              ❯❯❯ Whatever method the teachers decide to apply, they have to bear in mind that grammar is an indispensable part of language, so supporting students in better comprehension is crucial to the successful teaching and learning. One of the most common techniques is note-taking. Students are usually required to take notes in order to record the information. Typically the notes are written in a systematic linear way, e.g. as sentences, short phrases or key words. However, according to Buzan (2014: 49), traditional linear notes, despite being the most frequently used type of notes, have several disadvantages. The most important drawback of traditional notes is that they tend to be lengthy, monotonous and timeconsuming. Therefore, the brain is not stimulated in an efficient way and the learning process is inhibited. The more active in the learning process the learners are, the more neural connections are generated in the brain, thus making learning more effective (Paling 2019:15, Spitzer 2007: 114). Therefore, Buzan introduced the concept of mind mapping, i.e. a concept which illustrates how various words and ideas are related to each other in the Approaches to teaching grammar have undergone many changes and fluctuations. Many researchers proposed various methods and techniques of teaching grammar. Having observed many English teachers, I can divide them into two categories. The first one are those who focus on accuracy. They tend to follow the deductive and explicit approach and their grammar lesson usually has PPP structure (Presentation - Practice – Production), i.e. new grammar structures are explained to the students and later the phrase is practiced in a controlled way, using various drills (Harmer 2001:80). During the production phase, the students use the newly learnt language structure more freely, e.g. to produce oral or written texts. The other group of teachers who prefer the communicative approach turn from deductive to inductive approach, i.e. the lessons are not limited to introducing a grammar item and doing controlled exercises but the primary focus is put on meaning and the implicit teaching of grammar rules. Using this method, students focus more on fluency than on accuracy. They are asked to produce spoken or written utterances, usually without explicitly stated grammar rules.