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49 The Teacher  1-2 (187) 2022 Culture              ❯❯❯ Vikings invaded England in 1066 by sea, but that king, Harald Hardrada of Norway, that is, Harald III, was defeated at the battle of Stamford Bridge, East Yorkshire, on September 25th. However, England’s victorious king, Harold I, was defeated a short while later by another invading French army, led by William of Normandy, which landed at Pevensey on the South coast on September 28th. After a forced march by Harold I’s army to Hastings, East Sussex, the English were defeated on October 14th, and William of Normandy, known as ‘the conqueror’, became William I of England. While the Vikings, who continued to raid England from the sea, became a byword for rapine, looting, war and death, the new aristocracy from France began enriching the English language with itswords, for example, blonde (blond) reason (raison) and favourite (favorite) derive from French.* Consequently, although celebrated in the two part book, The Long Ships (1941-5), by Sweden’s Frans G. Bengtsson, and made into a 1964 movie, starring American actor, Richard Widmark, Harald Bluetooth’s 10th century Viking symbolism is a two-edged sword. Those with the technology have the tools to continue, whereas those who don’t fall by the wayside. In mythic terms, the development of what came to be called Bluetooth, since the initiation of research into ‘short link’ radio technology by Nils Rydbeck, chief technology officer (CTO) in 1987 of ‘phone company Mobile Ericsson, Lund, Sweden, was IT with the teeth of a vampire. If IT sank its teeth into you, you might live. Bluetooth was actually named for Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark and Norway (c. 958 - c. 986), who united disparate Scandinavian tribes, so it’s symbolic of unified communications protocols, that is, ostensibly incompatible connections made compatible through wireless; represented by an ancient Nordic rune combination of Harald Bluetooth’s initials (see Figure 1). Figure 1